60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops by Hammad M. Cheema, Reza Mahmoudi, Arthur H.M. van Roermund

By Hammad M. Cheema, Reza Mahmoudi, Arthur H.M. van Roermund

The promising excessive facts cost instant purposes at millimeter wave frequencies typically and 60 GHz specifically have won a lot realization lately. although, demanding situations with regards to circuit, structure and measurements in the course of mm-wave CMOS IC layout must be conquer earlier than they could develop into conceivable for mass market.

60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops concentrating on phase-locked loops for 60 GHz instant transceivers elaborates those demanding situations and proposes options for them. The approach point layout to circuit point implementation of the whole PLL, in addition to separate implementations of person elements comparable to voltage managed oscillators, injection locked frequency dividers and their mixtures, are incorporated. moreover, to meet a few transceiver topologies at the same time, flexibility is brought within the PLL structure by utilizing new dual-mode ILFDs and switchable VCOs, whereas reusing the low frequency elements on the similar time.

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The envisioned dual-mode prescaler is expected to cover the locking range of both divide-by-2 and divide-by-3 prescalers based on the input frequency. 6 GHz <À100 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz 127–141 190–212 19–21 GHz $300 MHz $300 MHz Zero comparison with the reference frequency in the phase frequency detector. 5. 7 Summary This chapter lays down the foundation for circuit design of the synthesizer in subsequent chapters. 3c is discussed in detail. The frequency channelization proposals of this standard include 2 GHz HRP channels for data intensive applications such as live video streaming and downloads and 1 GHz and 500 MHz LRP channels for moderate and low data rate applications, respectively.

L An alternative to the shield structure is to introduce a “ground ring” which surrounds the passive element as shown in Fig. 6d. This ring captures most of the fringing fields from reaching the substrate, thereby reducing the associated losses. As the ring does not form a closed loop around the inductor, it does not affect the magnetic field of the latter significantly. In this work, the latter two methods are widely employed to achieve isolation from substrate losses of the inductors employed in VCO and prescaler circuits.

15 Illustration of calibration and de-embedding procedures for accurate measurements l l l l The importance of the probe position on the bond-pads (as mentioned in the previous section) is more evident during a calibration procedure for mm-wave measurements. It is observed that the percentage of error crosses the acceptable range if two opposite probes do not land at the same location on a calibration standard (in a two port measurement). A common mistake is to readjust the probes when moving from one calibration standard or DUT to the other.

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