By by Rev. O. Hanson.
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Extra info for A grammar of the Kachin language
Of these the most likely source is Koita, if any one particular source was responsible for this development in Hiri Motu, as it has some of the same flexibility as exhibited by Hiri Motu. For example both SOV and OSV word orders occur depending on the nature of the sentence (Dutton 1975). Whether or not Koita was the only or principal source, it would seem that the other possible sources named above could hardly have been sources as (i) the "broken" Englishes presumed to have been spoken by "visitors" and the early policemen did not have this kind of variation (judging by modern forms of them) and (ii) the majority of native languages spoken by the "visitors" and early policemen were Austronesian (including Indonesian, Solomon Islands, Vanuatuan, and Fijian languages) and Papuan ones which did not have this kind of variation.
Hitherto, the Protectorate Government had been merely conducting a holding operation, attempting as far as possible to avoid distur bances and to protect the local population from undesirable outside influences and from itself. It had few legal powers to make laws and to enforce them. But a colony was a different matter and it was the change in the nature and methods of the colonial Government that had such an impact on the local population and, in turn, on the linguistic situation. Indeed, the impact was so Hiri Motu 21 great that by the time that MacGregor left British New Guinea in 1898, what was later to become known as Police Motu had become the principal, al though not the sole, unofficial language of administration in many areas and the scene was set for its further expansion into other areas as similar policies and methods continued bringing new areas under control.
Compared with Motu, Simplified Motu and Hiri Motu are gener ally much simpler in structure. They also include a number of features not found in Motu. 17 Comparing the Simplified Motu and Hiri Motu features, it is to be noted that, except for four features for which there is no evidence in Simplified Motu (viz. 18 Where these features came from in Simplified Motu and Hiri Motu is, however, another question and one the linguistic evidence cannot answer unambiguously. On the one hand, most of the fea tures that distinguish Simplified Motu and Hiri Motu from Motu have paral lels in one or more of the languages the Motu were in contact with at the time of first European contact.