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Книга на английском языке по ремонту и эксплуатации автомобилей BMW three серии в кузове E46, кузова седан, купе, кабриолет и спорт-универсал, в конфигурациях, поставлявшихся в США. Описаны автомобили моделей M3, 323i, 325i, 325xi, 328i, 330i, 33xi, Sedan, Coupe, Convertible, game Wagon. 1999-2005.
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Extra resources for Bosch Automotive Handbook
The torque generates the illustrated shearing-stress distribution in every crosssectional plane on every diameter. 3°, see Units of angle). See Section moduli and geometrical moments of inertia for polar planar moments of inertia Ip. Torsion Notch effect The equations cited above apply to smooth rods and bars; if notches are present, these equations yield the following nominal stresses (referred to the residual cross section): σzn = F/A under tension (see diagram) or compression, σbn = Mb/Wb under bending, τtn = Mt/Wt under torsion.
3 (stress values have lower-case subscripts, fatigue-strength values have upper-case subscripts). A fatigue fracture generally does not exhibit permanent deformation. With plastics, it is not always possible to give an "ultimate number of cycles" because in this case extensive superimposed creepage becomes effective. With high-tensile steels, the internal stresses resulting from production processes can have a considerable effect upon the fatigue-strength values. ≤ ≤ ≥ Fatigue-limit diagram The greatest "infinitely" often endurable stress amplitude can be determined from the fatigue limit diagram (at right) for any minimum stress σu or mean stress σm.
This applies in particular to simulation calculations based on the model. Analytical modal analysis The geometry, material data and marginal conditions must be known. Multibodysystem or finite-element models provide characteristic values and vectors. Analytical modal analysis requires no specimen sample, and can therefore be used at an early stage of development. However, it is often the case that precise knowledge concerning the structure's fundamental properties (damping, marginal conditions) are lacking, which means that the modal model can be very inaccurate.