Challenge of Arctic Shipping by David L. VanderZwaag, Cynthia Lamson

By David L. VanderZwaag, Cynthia Lamson

Ten essays handle severe concerns in Arctic improvement reading the results for either policy-making within the North and the impression of that coverage on local humans. in addition they research advertisement proposals to strengthen and delivery hydrocarbons via environmentally delicate waters. Annotation co

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If the local motion is compressive, interfingering occurs. The overriding ice ploughs ice blocks and snow into ridges. The portions of the pressure ridge above and below the surrounding undisturbed ice are called the sail and keel, respectively. A cross-section of a pressure ridge is shown in Figure ii. The broken ice blocks making up the ridge are composed usually of thinner, first-year ice, 50 cm or less thick (Weeks, Kovacs, and Hibler 1971). Ice sheets undergoing shear can also result in ridges, typically straight and vertically walled on one side.

A corresponding marked increase in temperature, called the thermocline, is usually located at the same depth as the pycnocline. The surface layer is subject to large seasonal changes caused by such factors as river runoff and sea-ice melt, large seasonal variations in solar radiation, turbulent mixing by moving ice and wind, and vertical convection, associated with brine rejection from growing sea ice. In the Beaufort Sea the depth of the surface layer in late November was found to be from 9 m to 38 m (Melling 1983).

In general, a given polynya will owe its existence to a com- The Physical Environment 45 Figure 14. Recurring polynyas in the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Archipelago, Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. Adapted from Smith and Rigby, 1981. bination of these two mechanisms, although one or other process may dominate. Polynyas that vanish beneath a thin ice cover during winter, and areas where thin ice persists, will be the first areas to become free of ice during spring melt. Within the Arctic Archipelago, specific areas routinely become ice free weeks before the decay of ice in the region becomes well established.

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