By Hermann Hiereth
This publication covers all features of supercharging inner combustion engines. It info charging structures and elements, the theoretical simple kinfolk among engines and charging platforms, in addition to format and overview standards for top interplay. insurance additionally describes fresh studies in layout and improvement of supercharging platforms, greater graphical displays, and such a lot complicated calculation and simulation instruments.
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Extra resources for Charging the Internal Combustion Engine (Powertrain) (Powertrain)
All ﬂow compressors are based on the physical principle of the transformation of kinetic energy, which is supplied to the medium in the impeller, into a pressure rise via ﬂow deceleration, partially in the impeller, partially in a diffuser. 15) where wC is the added speciﬁc compressor work, vi are the medium absolute ﬂow speeds at the intake (1) and outlet (2), and hi are the corresponding enthalpies. The latter describe the gas condition, which enables, directly from Eq. 15), the calculation of the pressure and temperature at the compressor outlet or the compressor work.
With water injection, not only the temperature of the exhaust gases is lowered due to the vaporization of the water in the combustion chamber but also the volume ﬂow through the turbine is increased. This results in a signiﬁcant increase of the enthalpy of the turbine intake gases, which itself can be used for a further increase in boost pressure or for a turbo-compound operation. If particulate ﬁlters are located in the high-pressure exhaust stream, upstream of the turbine, they represent a considerable heat sink with undesirable consequences for load changes of the engine.
17 with a continuously variable ZF-Variomat transmission. nE nC constant without valve overlap Pressure ratio p2/p1 Operation lines with valve overlap nE 3n 3n C E nC nE nE nC nC . Volume flow V1 Fig. 15. 6 Interaction between supercharger and internal combustion engine nE nC 21 surge limit constant Pressure ratio p2/p1 nC operation line 3n 4 C 1n 4 C 1n 2 C 1n 4 E 1n 2 E 3n 4 E . nE Volume flow V1 Fig. 16. 20 . 35 Volume flow V1 [m1/s] Fig. 17. Pressure–volume ﬂow map of a four-stroke engine with turbo compressor and variable speed ratio of the charger drive via ZF-Variomat With turbo compressors, control measures may become necessary due to their instable map area.