Chemistry and Biology of the Starch Granule by N. P. Badenhuizen (auth.)

By N. P. Badenhuizen (auth.)

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1957). The chains become shorter and the molecular weight decreases. The high degree of branching is the result of transglycosidation reactions, probably with the formation of new a-1,3 linkages (CHRISTENSEN and SMITH 1957). The microscopical changes taking place in pyrodextrins suspended in cold water, have been systematically investipotato starch granule in water. ) Fig. 23. Roasted gated b y B ADENHUIZEN an d K ATZ (1938. showing characteristic cracks. The connections between the layers are broken, part of the substance dissolves, and the residues demonstrate a mnch increased swelling power in cold water as compared with that of the original starch.

Glucose is a competitive inhibitor for muscle P-lase (CORI et aZ. 1943). but not for potato P-lase. It is further of great importance that amylase can inhibit plant P -lase activity directly, not only p-amylase (PORTER 1950), but probably also a-amylase (RAM and GIRl 1952, ONO 1956). Chlorogenic acid, which is known to be concentrated in the peel of potato, effectively inhibits the P-lase (SCHWIMMER 1957). Cationic surfaceactive agents possibly interfere with the enzyme-substrate nnion and so inactivate the enzyme; full activity can be restored by means of chelating agents, which remove the toxic metallic ions from the enzyme proteins (FREDERICK 1957).

By freezing and thawing) causes a loss in susceptibility which i,s less for waxy starch than for normal maize or potato starch (VOLZ and RAMSTAD 1952). Raw maize starch can be made much more accessible to the aotion of a-amylase by the addition of a cationic detergent, which permits better penetration of the enzyme into the granules. GATES and SANDSTEDT (1952) found that the addition of such a detergent caused better growth in chickens. KIHARA and KAWASE (1953) determined digestibility by mixing starches with taka diastase at 37 0 C.

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