By Professor Dr. Hans Georg Schwarzacher (auth.)
The growth in Micromorphology and Biochemistry of the final a long time has ended in a slightly some distance attaining realizing of the functionality of the genes. a lot can be recognized approximately their morphological association in the mobile, really their reduplication and segregation in reference to the method of mobilephone department. The extensive mild microscopic reports of the sooner cytological period on telephone department and chromosomes, which laid the foundation for this realizing are very comprehensively lined via WASSERMANN (1929) in his masterly contribution "Wachstum und Vermehrung der lebendigen Masse" during this guide. There exist additionally many newer stories on chromosomes and on cytogene tics (e. g. SWANSON, 1960; MAZIA, 1961; TURPIN and LEJEUNE, 1965; WmTEHousE, 1969; HAMERTON, 1971; FORD, 1973). notwithstanding, even supposing a few of them hide the newer findings in guy, they've got both needed to depend on extra favorable species for unique simple details or dealt with cytogenetic difficulties from a more effective and scientific viewpoint. considering that in addition, the previous couple of years have introduced a flood of latest details on chromosomes as a result of new cytological suggestions, a brand new evaluate on human chromosomes would appear justified in the body of this guide. This evaluation might be limited to human somatic chromosomes, i. e. it wi11leave out meiosis, and should supply info on different species provided that this turns out useful for elevated clarity.
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Additional info for Chromosomes: in Mitosis and Interphase
X 2200 Q-bands Several fluorescent dyes can be used to demonstrate a pattern of differential stained bands along the chromosomes. Quinacrine mustard and quinacrine dihydrochloride, introduced by CASPERSSON et al. (1968) have been shown to give a particularly strong fluorescent staining (Fig. 26). Hence the term" Q-bands " . , 1970). The Paris Conference (1971) proposed to use the following 5 grades to describe the approximate intensity of fluorescence: negative, pale, medium, intensive, brilliant.
1965), that lysine-rich histones cause chromatin to condense, whereas arginine-rich histones prevent chromatin condensations. The Q-bands, which are with a few exceptions the same as the G-bands, would therefore represent regions which are AT-rich and which are at the same time more condensed. The importance of histone for the maintenance of chromosome structure after different treatments was also demonstrated by MEISNER et al. (1973). RODMAN and TAHILIANI (1973) concluded from differential acid hydrolysis studies on mouse chromosomes, that dense bands may result from an association of a specific class of histones to DNA.
SUMNER and EVANS (1973) believe that with Giemsa, a magenta compound is formed in situ which is attached to DNA molecules by hydrogen bonds. They suggest that the amount of Giemsa bound depends on the spatial arrangement of the binding sites of the chromatin. They have stated in addition that the binding of Giemsa is not affected by whether the DNA is double stranded or denatured. In any case, these investigations indicate that the Giemsa stain is affected by the kind of packing or spatial arrangement of the DNA-protein complex.