By Graeme Auld
Read Online or Download Constructing Private Governance: The Rise and Evolution of Forest, Coffee, and Fisheries Certification PDF
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Additional info for Constructing Private Governance: The Rise and Evolution of Forest, Coffee, and Fisheries Certification
1). In the second group, local standards were developed and audits occurred before the founders could create a global program. This group includes the Forest Stewardship Council, the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements for both coffee and aquaculture, the Fairtrade International, the Rainforest Alliance and Sustainable Agriculture Network (RA-SAN, formerly Eco-OK) program, the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center’s (SMBC) “bird-friendly” program, the Global “Good Agricultural Practices” (Global GAP, formerly EurepGAP) initiative, and the Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification.
North (1991) followed a similar logic. Two forces shape the course of institutional change: transaction costs and processes of increasing returns. 9 The outcome could still be efficient, since inefficiency comes from high transaction costs and incomplete information. Where increasing returns are combined with incomplete markets (that is, information problems, nonzero transaction costs), conversely, “the subjective models of actors modified by very imperfect feedback and by ideology will shape the path” (95).
For instance, North (1991, 94–95) uses self-reinforcing and increasing returns largely as interchangeable processes, which are the emergent pattern that results from learning effects, coordination effects, and adaptive expectations. Pierson (2004) provides a specific definition of increasing returns: “Each increment added to a particular line of activity yields larger rather than smaller benefits” (22). But in subsequent discussion, increasing returns and self-reinforcing processes are also d yn amics o f i n i ti a ti o n , c o n s o l i d a ti o n , and p ro p ag at io n â•… 29 used ostensibly as synonyms.