By Peter Bakker
This quantity bargains with different types of touch languages: pidgins, creoles, combined languages, and multi-ethnolects. It additionally methods touch languages from views: an ancient linguistic standpoint, extra particularly from a perspective of genealogical linguistics, language descent and linguistic genealogy versions; and a sociolinguistic standpoint, picking out particular social contexts within which touch languages emerge.
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Extra info for Contact Languages
Sections 4 and 5 below) by contact linguists (though laymen and even general linguists often have difficulties telling the two apart). Pidgins 23 A natively spoken language would also more or less by definition not fulfil criterion 4. Arguments given with regard to criterion 2 are also valid here. Pidgins use materials from other languages as building blocks (criterion 5). No pidgin (except possibly signed ones) makes use exclusively or even partly of invented vocabulary. The vocabulary of pidgins can always be traced back to one, sometimes several, other languages, either spoken natively by the groups in contact, or known by some of the people involved.
Broken Oghibbeway (Nichols 1995; see also Bakker 1994b) has dropped its lexifier’s negative suffix, but it preserves the preverbal negative particle. In Pidgin Hawaiian, the position of the negative element is not the same as 42 Mikael Parkvall and Peter Bakker in the lexifier. In Hawaiian, it is placed in the beginning of a sentence, preceding SBJ ASP V, and in the pidgin it is located between the subject and the verb (Roberts 1995: 107–108, 115). Only one of four Hawaiian negators is retained in the pidgin, aole, which is the most common one.
1991), as do the verbs in Fanakalo (Bold 1958: 54). Some remarks must be made on minor or functional categories such as adpositions, copulas, personal pronouns and question words. Pidgins tend to have a limited number of prepositions and postpositions. g. Sango nà, Pidgin Swahili ya or Fanakalo lapa (Heine 1979: 94). The Taymir Pidgin Russian postposition mesto/meste (< Russian ‘place’) also functions as a marker of instrumentals, comitatives, datives, goals and comparatives. Fanakalo has Pidgins 37 several prepositions.