Cultivating Biodiversity to Transform Agriculture by Étienne Hainzelin (auth.), Étienne Hainzelin (eds.)

By Étienne Hainzelin (auth.), Étienne Hainzelin (eds.)

How can cultivated plant biodiversity give a contribution to the transformation and the "ecologization" of agriculture in Southern international locations? in response to huge box paintings within the Southern international locations, loads of clinical growth is gifted in all parts affecting agriculture (agronomy, plant breeding and crop defense, cultivation structures, etc.) so one can accentuate the ecological strategies in cultivated plots and on the scale of rural landscapes.

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24 É. Hainzelin and C. Nouaille The need for relevant indicators that can be reliably defined and acquired has made them the topic of research programmes and international negotiations. 1 Agriculture, the Planet’s Most Important Landscape Today, of Earth’s entire surface of about 51 billion hectares (including the oceans) an estimated 12 billion hectares (land and water) are bioproductive in the sense that they create a certain amount of organic matter each year through photosynthesis. 9 billion hectares, of which 70 % is directly subject to human activity.

It accompanies the genetic improvement of cultivated species and their pathogens, with the help of disciplines such as ethnobotany as well as anthropology and, nowadays, linguistics. • Functional ecology has been dealing, since the 1960s, with the functions of organisms and ecosystems in interaction with their environment. It studies, for example, relationships that connect individuals from a mixture of different species in a given environment (functional groups of species), with respect to different modes of farming.

In fact, to satisfy their passion for sugar, the colonial powers disrupted international trade, imposing appalling terms on their new possessions: the so-called ‘triangular trade’ (Europe, Africa and the New World). —which led to frenzied commercial competitions around these commodities. The European industrial revolution in the nineteenth century accelerated the pressure on crops, increasing the need for raw materials and new markets. Europe turned to Africa and Southeast Asia and, at the beginning of the twentieth century, embarked on major undertakings for the exploitation of agricultural potential of their colonies.

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