By Amna Imam, Eazaz A. Dar
This publication explores the position of the grass roots public administrative establishment of DC & DM in ancient context for Pakistan, and its viability for a significant democracy and balance of the rustic. The authors contend that Pakistan’s democracy to-date lacks company origin, as evidenced by way of the country’s disintegration in 1971, violence and medication within the 80s, crime infested groups within the 90s, terrorism within the 2000s, and the present risky scenario in Balochistan and FATA, in addition to excessive crime expense and missing experience of safety one of the groups of Pakistan.
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Indo-Parthians, another Central Eurasian people, ruled classical Pakistan during the last part of the first century BCE and first part of the first century CE. 140 Village administration again was left to the local villagers. Just as the Greeks brought with them the concept of urbanization, they also brought concepts of democracy, participation, and decentralization as well. 142 Perhaps, it was the influence of the ideas of democracy and participation that the later Gupta dynasty was increasingly participative, inclusive, and democratic in its outlook and included guilds and prominent citizens in its administrative decision-making processes, something never seen before in India.
Just as the Greeks brought with them the concept of urbanization, they also brought concepts of democracy, participation, and decentralization as well. 142 Perhaps, it was the influence of the ideas of democracy and participation that the later Gupta dynasty was increasingly participative, inclusive, and democratic in its outlook and included guilds and prominent citizens in its administrative decision-making processes, something never seen before in India. 144 Because the Greek era administration was headed by the military satraps of Alexander the Great, their district level governance was also militarized.
25 This sustained the nascent country and its democracy in the initial years of its existence. 28 Those European officers signed contracts with the East India Company, which ensured security of tenure and conditions of service. 29 Up until 1853, the positions of the prestigious Covenanted Civil Services were filled by patronage by the East India Company. The Government of India Act of 1853 abolished the patronage of the directors of the company. 30 After taking over governance of India from the East India Company in 1857, the British Imperial Raj set itself to the task of improving the overall conditions in India and to address the concerns of their Indian subjects.