Hydrodynamic instabilities and entrainment in two-layer by Maria Eletta Negretti

By Maria Eletta Negretti

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Additional info for Hydrodynamic instabilities and entrainment in two-layer stratified flows down a slope

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Dallimore and Ishikawa [2001] studied a saline underflow into a lake. The rate of entrainment into the bottom layer is related to the bulk Richardson number (defined with the mean properties of the layer). However, they indicated that the entrainment and mixing is mainly caused by the bottom boundary generated turbulence, which is transported vertically to the density interface. 4 Barotropic effects a general relation between the entrainment coefficients and the bulk Richardson number (see Ellison and Turner [1959], Lofquist [1960], Christodoulou [1986], Garcia [1996] and Kessel and Kranenburg [1996]).

Exchange flows through a barrier are studied by Zhu [2002] and by Cuthbertson and Coates [2004] where a oscillating barrier has been used. Stommel and Farmer [1953] and later Welander [1984] pointed out that barotropic current fluctuations can influence the state of overmixing, but none of them made a quantitative estimation of the effect. Stigebrandt [1976] developed a simple theory, showing that the two-layer transport capacity of a constriction may be increased considerably by barotropic current fluctuations.

Baines [1975] (also see his book, Baines [1995]) studied the unsteady flow adjustment of two-layer flow upstream of a bottom sill. g. tidal influence) on exchange flows. Pawlak and Armi [1998] reported the effect of non-uniform velocity profiles. Exchange flows through a barrier are studied by Zhu [2002] and by Cuthbertson and Coates [2004] where a oscillating barrier has been used. Stommel and Farmer [1953] and later Welander [1984] pointed out that barotropic current fluctuations can influence the state of overmixing, but none of them made a quantitative estimation of the effect.

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