The Ancient Synagogue from its Origins to 200 C.E.: A Source by Anders Runesson

By Anders Runesson

Regardless of the hot explosion of study on historical synagogues, investigators within the box have hitherto been compelled to cull proper facts from an unlimited collection of scholarly guides.

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21 Source: Literary. Agatharchides ap. Josephus, C. Ap. 209–11. e. Agatharchides of Cnidus was born ca. e. [209] “ưȝ ƬƣƭưɟvƧƮưƫ ȤưƶƦƣʴưƫ ƱɝƭƫƮ ưȜƬư˃ƮƵƧƳ ȬƸƶƲƺƵɕƵƩƮ ƱƣƴːƮ, ȏƮ ƬƣƭƧʴƮ ȤƧƲưƴɝƭƶvƣ ƴƶvƤƣɛƮƧƫ ƵưɞƳ ȀƥƸƺƲɛưƶƳ, ǰƲƥƧʴƮ ƧȜƪƫƴvɗƮưƫ Ʀƫʞ ȁƤƦɝvƩƳ ȍvɗƲƣƳ Ƭƣɚ vəƵƧ Ƶɔ ȱƱƭƣ ƤƣƴƵɕƨƧƫƮ ȀƮ ƵưʴƳ ƧȜƲƩvɗƮưƫƳ ƸƲɝƮưƫƳ vəƵƧ ƥƧƺƲƥɛƣƳ ǵƱƵƧƴƪƣƫ vəƵƧ ǴƭƭƩƳ ȀƱƫvƧƭƧʴƴƪƣƫ ƭƧƫƵưƶƲƥɛƣƳ vƩƦƧvƫʗƳ, ǰƭƭʞ ȀƮ ƵưʴƳ ȝƧƲưʴƳ ȀƬƵƧƵƣƬɝƵƧƳ ƵɔƳ ƸƧʴƲƣƳ [210] ƧȼƸƧƴƪƣƫ vɗƸƲƫ ƵʦƳ ȁƴƱɗƲƣƳ, ƧȜƴƫɝƮƵưƳ ƧȜƳ ƵɘƮ ƱɝƭƫƮ ƓƵưƭƧvƣɛưƶ Ƶư˃ Ǝɕƥưƶ vƧƵɔ ƵʦƳ ƦƶƮɕvƧƺƳ Ƭƣɚ ƵːƮ ǰƮƪƲɡƱƺƮ ǰƮƵɚ Ƶư˃ ƷƶƭɕƵƵƧƫƮ ƵɘƮ ƱɝƭƫƮ ƦƫƣƵƩƲưɟƮƵƺƮ ƵɘƮ ǴƮưƫƣƮ, ȍ vɖƮ ƱƣƵƲɚƳ ƧȜƭəƷƧƫ ƦƧƴƱɝƵƩƮ ƱƫƬƲɝƮ, ȭ Ʀɖ ƮɝvưƳ ȀƯƩƭɗƥƸƪƩ Ʒƣ˃ƭưƮ ȄƸƺƮ ȀƪƫƴvɝƮ.

John 12:42–43 Date: Ca. e. [42] ȱvƺƳ vɗƮƵưƫ Ƭƣɚ ȀƬ ƵːƮ ǰƲƸɝƮƵƺƮ Ʊưƭƭưɚ ȀƱɛƴƵƧƶƴƣƮ ƧȜƳ ƣȸƵɝƮ, ǰƭƭɔ Ʀƫɔ ƵưɞƳ ƘƣƲƫƴƣɛưƶƳ ưȸƸ ɅvưƭɝƥưƶƮ ȡƮƣ vɘ ǰƱưƴƶƮɕƥƺƥưƫ ƥɗƮƺƮƵƣƫ· [43] ȌƥɕƱƩƴƣƮ ƥɔƲ ƵɘƮ ƦɝƯƣƮ ƵːƮ ǰƮƪƲɡƱƺƮ vʗƭƭưƮ ȎƱƧƲ ƵɘƮ ƦɝƯƣƮ Ƶư˃ ƪƧư˃. [42] Nevertheless many, even of the authorities, believed in him. But because of the Pharisees they did not confess it, for fear that they would be put out of the synagogue [aposynagÔgos]; [43] for they loved human glory more than the glory that comes from God. , ad loc.

Comments: Of the thirty-four references to synagogues in Luke’s two books, nineteen come from Acts. Those mentioned are located in Jerusalem, Damascus, Salamis, Pisidian Antioch, Iconium, Thessalonica, Beroea, Athens, Corinth and Ephesus. Acts and the Gospel of John are the oldest biblical witnesses to synagogues in Jerusalem. The one or more synagogues mentioned in Acts 6:9 are deÀned by references to different ethnic or social groups, and are reminiscent of the GraecoRoman voluntary associations.

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