Water and Ritual: The Rise and Fall of Classic Maya Rulers by Lisa J. Lucero

By Lisa J. Lucero

Within the southern Maya lowlands, rainfall supplied the first and, in a few parts, the one resource of water for individuals and vegetation. vintage Maya kings backed complex public rituals that affirmed their shut ties to the supernatural international and their skill to intercede with deities and ancestors to make sure an sufficient volume of rain, which was once then saved to supply water in the course of the four-to-five-month dry season. so long as the rains got here, Maya kings provided their matters with water and exacted tribute in exertions and items in go back. but if the rains failed on the finish of the vintage interval (AD 850-950), the Maya rulers misplaced either their declare to supernatural strength and their temporal authority. Maya commoners persisted to supplicate gods and ancestors for rain in loved ones rituals, yet they stopped paying tribute to rulers whom the gods had forsaken.

In this paradigm-shifting e-book, Lisa Lucero investigates the relevant function of water and formality within the upward thrust, dominance, and fall of vintage Maya rulers. She files commoner, elite, and royal ritual histories within the southern Maya lowlands from the past due Preclassic throughout the Terminal vintage classes to teach how elites and rulers received political energy throughout the public replication and elaboration of household-level rituals. whilst, Lucero demonstrates that political strength rested both on fabric stipulations that the Maya rulers may well merely partly keep watch over. delivering a brand new, extra nuanced knowing of those twin bases of strength, Lucero makes a compelling case for non secular and fabric components intermingling within the improvement and dying of Maya political complexity.

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It is likely some hunting involved the use of wellplanned ambushes in which many people played individual but coordinated parts; remains of hides, drive lanes, and constructed cul-de-sacs (kites) have been found from the late Palaeolithic onward in the Near East, and similar devices may have been employed in Europe. The site of Solutré in France was selected to take advantage of a natural dead-end canyon that was used as a drive lane and trap in which to slaughter animals en masse; horses made up the majority of the prey at this site.

The growing importance of domestic stock coincides in Sardinia and Corsica with a decline in the numbers of the native species Prolagus sardus (a kind of rabbit) and Megacerus cazioti (a deer), which eventually became extinct. C. CENTRAL EUROPE Linearbandkeramik (LBK also known as Danubian I). C. farming settlements were beginning to appear in the western Carpathian basin and to spread into areas to the north and west of the Carpathian Mountains. Colonization of this region HANDBOOK TO LIFE IN PREHISTORIC EUROPE 34 of dispersal in the new landscape, acting as a check on the otherwise relatively unlimited opportunities for expansion.

After a short initial phase, settlements surrounded by one or several enclosure ditches were established in Italy; these are best known in the Tavoliere region of the south. Smaller circular ditched compounds within the settlement contained individual timberframed houses. Settlements of various sizes are known, larger ones particularly in later phases. As in Southeast Europe, their inhabitants raised sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs and cultivated cereals. The trend of opinion is to regard these farmers as colonists from the eastern Mediterranean.

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