Membrane Biogenesis: Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, and by Alexander Tzagoloff (auth.), Alexander Tzagoloff (eds.)

By Alexander Tzagoloff (auth.), Alexander Tzagoloff (eds.)

There are at present an increasing number of laboratories actively learning the mechanism wherein quite a few organic membranes are assembled. This zone of study continues to be particularly new to biochemists and molecular biologists, yet in view of the swift development being made, a evaluation of the sphere at the moment is justified. the current quantity makes a speciality of the biogenesis of 3 similar membranes. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are semiautonomous organelles whose biogenesis is performed in part within the exterior cytoplasm and in part via the organelles themselves. either membranes are mostly enthusiastic about the power metabolism of the cellphone, and this commonality of functionality is mirrored in a substantial measure of similarity of their ul­ trastructure and enzymatic composition. even supposing the bacterial cellphone membrane is a way more various constitution, it additionally fulfills the elemental power necessities of the telephone, and counting on the organism, this may take the shape of photosynthesis or oxidative phosphorylation. The addi­ tional attention that prokaryotic organisms may perhaps, actually, be the evolu­ tionary ancestors of mitochondria and chloroplasts, makes all of it the extra compelling that these drawn to biogenesis pay attention to new increase­ ments in every one of those 3 parts. In organizing this e-book, I felt that the individuals should still summarize and produce brand new their very own examine and overview the literature merely in­ sofar as will be essential to give you the right standpoint for his or her work.

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Extra resources for Membrane Biogenesis: Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, and Bacteria

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Biogenetic Autonomy of Mitochondria 29 3. 1. 1. Is the Amount of Mitochondrial DNA Coupled to That of Nuclear DNA? We have attempted to answer this question by studies of cell populations, identical in both their nuclear and mitochondrial genotype, grown and harvested under conditions that also assure the identity of all physiological variables, but differing in their ploidy (the number of their chromosome sets). We have used three cell lines, two completely isogenic haploids, but of opposite mating type, and the diploid obtained from their conjugation.

5 ,42 Table I also provides a comparison with the characteristics of supTable I. Comparison of New RDu Mutants with Pet and Suppressive Petite Mutants Mutant 73/1 Genotype Complementation with pO b Meiotic segregation (tetrad analysis) Mitotic segregation of RS diploids Ditto after conversion to po C Phenotype Functional respiratory chain Cytochrome oxidase Cytochrome aa. NADH : cytochrome c reductase Cytochrome b Oligomycin resistance of ATPase Mitochondrial protein synthesis Petite phenocopy by CApe a Respiration deficient; RS = Suppressive p- No 0:4 Yes No No 0:4 Yes No Yes 2:2 No No No Absent Absent Low" Low" No Yes Yes No Absent Absent Absent Absent No No No No Absent Absent Low" Low" No Yes Not done respiration sufficient.

Apparently the latter is capable of replicating throughout the cell cycle. , their mtDNAs and, presumably, the different mitochondria in which they reside divide at different times during the cell cycle). Our studies on serial sections have, in fact, provided support for this hypothesis: the relative constancy of mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial number extends to cells throughout the cell cycle, including cells in G 2 and M with extensive buds. Therefore, mitochondrial division-and hence mitochondrial S phasedoes not appear restricted, or in any way related, to cellular S phase.

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