By Anders Uhlin
The advance of civil society has diversified drastically around the former Soviet Union. The Baltic states have completed a excessive point of integration with the West and eu Union club, whereas a few areas in Russia lag some distance in the back of. Now for the 1st time there's a comparative examine of civil society and democratization throughout post-Soviet nationwide borders. Acknowledging the large version through the area, the publication deals distinct information on advancements in Russia, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. employing an cutting edge analytical framework derived from theories of democratization, civil society, social activities and transnational relatives, the researchers have formulated broader comparisons and generalisations with out neglecting the explicit post-Soviet context. The publication presents a scientific comparability throughout sectors in addition to international locations, and includes chapters on NGOs, the nation and clash, and transnationalisation. Quantitative survey information is mixed with qualitative interviews and case examine learn to either make sure earlier findings concerning the weak point of post-communist civil society and to qualify prior examine.
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Extra resources for Post-Soviet Civil Society Democratization in Russia and the Baltic States (Basees Routledge Series on Russian and East European Studies)
Defining and measuring democracy The theoretical (and practical) discourse on democracy is to a large extent characterized by the antagonism between two opposing positions concerning the definition of democracy. On one side we have proponents of narrow, formal, macro-level, institutionalist, and electoralist definitions. On the other side we have those favouring broad, substantive, micro-level, society-oriented, participatory, and equality-oriented definitions. The former are common within empirical democratic theory and typically draw on the minimalist definition used by Schumpeter (1976), which sees democracy simply as a process for electing leaders based on elite competition.
Before turning to this discussion we need to consider other types of actors within civil society. Non-governmental organizations are formal, self-governing, voluntary, non-profit organizations (cf. Gordenker and Weiss 1996:20). By self-governing we mean a relative autonomy in relation to states, capital and other organizations. In fact, the existence of what has been called GONGOs (governmentally organized non-governmental organizations), MANGOs (manipulated non-governmental organizations) and GRINGOs (governmentally regulated and initiated non-governmental organizations) is an indication of the complex relationship between state and non-state authorities (Higgott et al.
Interactions within transnational advocacy networks are often asymmetrical (Keck and Sikkink 1998:207). Networks might be particularly good at transferring information, but for the collection and distribution of other types of resources they may be less reliable than other types of organizations. Access to information may be restricted to those who are already within the network (Ahrne 1998:92). The increase in transnational problems and the incapacity of governments to cope with these problems explain the emergence of transnational civil society networks.